EUROPEANS TAUGHT FOR CENTURIES that Africa had no written history, literature or philosophy (claiming Egypt was other than African). When roughly 1 MILLION manuscripts were found in Timbuktu/Mali covering , according to Reuters “all the fields of human knowledge: law, the sciences, medicine,” IT DID NOT MAKE MAINSTREAM NEWS as did the lies taught by Europeans concerning Africa
Someone asked me to somehow “verify” that this story is real.
Of course it’s real! The PROBLEM with the coverage regarding these manuscripts is that they’re constantly portrayed as being in “danger” because many of them are still in the possession of Malian descendants. About 700,000 have been cataloged so far, and they have had to be moved in part because apparently extremist groups have tried to firebomb them. Many others are still in the possession of the families they have been passed down in.
Many of these collected manuscripts are being housed in exile, but mold and humidity have been a constant threat. They have been raising funds to try and preserve these manuscripts-you can read more about the project to house and protect them here.
A bit of the history of these manuscripts from National Geographic:
These sacred manuscripts covered an array of subjects: astronomy, medicine, mathematics, chemistry, judicial law, government, and Islamic conflict resolution. Islamic study during this period of human history, when the intellectual evolution had stalled in the rest of Europe was growing, evolving, and breaking new ground in the fields of science, mathematics, astronomy, law, and philosophy within the Muslim world.
By the 1300s the “Ambassadors of Peace” centered around the University of Timbuktu created roving scholastic campuses and religious schools of learning that traveled between the cities of Timbuktu, Gao, and Djénné, helping to serve as a model of peaceful governance throughout an often conflict-riddled tribal region.
At its peak, over 25,000 students attended the University of Timbuktu.
By the beginning of the 1600s with the Moroccan invasions from the north, however, the scholars of Timbuktu began to slowly drift away and study elsewhere. As a result, the city’s sacred manuscripts began to fall into disrepair. While Islamic teachings there continued for another 300 years, the biggest decline in scholastic study occurred with the French colonization of present-day Mali in the late 1890s.
So yeah, basically the story of this collection’s source more or less ends with “…but unfortunately, colonialism”, as do most of the great cities of Africa, the Americas, and some parts of Asia.
Also, as an additional consideration:
With the pressures of poverty, a series of droughts, and a tribal Tureg rebellion in Mali that lasted over ten years, the manuscripts continue to disappear into the black market, where they are illegally sold to private and university collections in Europe and the United States.
Notice where the blame is placed here via language use: on the people in poverty forced to sell their treasures, as opposed to the Universities in Europe and the U.S. buying them.
It’s really just another face of Neocolonialism.
Reasons for Admission to the Trans-Allegheny Lunatic Asylum in West Virginia (1864-1899) x
(OR: Why I waste time in a meaningless field; why I want to spend my life looking at old dusty letters and books; why I care about people who are dead and gone; why this even matters.)
I study history because I love humanity.
I study history because it encompasses the entire realm of human thought and deed.
History is a coded map of the human heart; it is a record of hopes & dreams of the great and the small. History is the ambitions of humans on their knees — in the mosques, the cathedrals, the temples; on the plantations; in the trenches. History is the hopes of the humans looking ahead — at the horizon, up to the stars, towards the future.
History is the action of firing a gun or swinging a sword; the action of love (making it, keeping it, using it, stealing it, forgetting it, leaving it).
History is a Mozart symphony, a Wagnerian opera, a gamelan orchestra, and the rhythm of the military march.
History is culture, literature, philosophy; history is the smallest bedtime prayer whispered by the smallest child. It is a quest — to slay the dragon, to reclaim the Holy Land, to surpass all boundaries.
History is neither good nor evil, but it is the sum of good and evil things. It is the wheel of time, the moving hands of a clock, and the timeless hush of an old library. History is in the museums but also in destruction of museums.
And the work of a historian is not a dead job. It is not all dust and old books, faded parchment and endless, meaningless letters. It is not mummification — rather, it is the resurrection and immortalization of past lives, past hopes and fears and dreams.
The historian does not worship the past, but instead brings it into the present — refreshes it, remembers it, and, most importantly, learns from it. The historian knows that history is a tool, and knowledge of history is both an honor and a powerful weapon in the right (or wrong) hands.
Most of all, the historian knows that history is not only the past — it is the future.
How quickly we forget – How Muslims Helped Ireland During The Great Famine
Ireland was ridden with famine and disease between 1845 and 1849. Also known as the Great Hunger, this famine had lasting effects: at least one million people died due to famine-related diseases and more than one million Irish fled, mainly to the United States, England, Canada, and Australia.
The Islamic State (Ottoman) ruler at that time Sultan Khaleefah Abdul-Majid declared his intention to send £10,000 sterling to Irish farmers but Queen Victoria requested that the Sultan send only £1,000 sterling, because she had sent only £2,000 sterling herself. The Sultan sent the £1,000 sterling but also secretly sent 3 ships full of food. The British administration tried to block the ships, but the food arrived secretly at Drogheda harbour.
This generous charity from a Muslim ruler to a Christian nation is also important, particularly in our time when Muslims are often unfairly accused of human rights violations. Likewise, the appreciative plaque and overall reaction of the Irish society in return for this charity deserves to be applauded. We hope that the Turkish-Irish friendship sets a model for peace among different nations.
In commemoration of the Ottoman aid, Drogheda added the Ottoman crescent and star to its coat of arms. Their football club’s emblem retains this design til this day.
…began in New York.
After the Glorious Revolution, the Crown worked out a compromise of colonial autonomy and imperial power with its American colonies. Most colonies accepted royal governors in their councils but colonists also looked to London for the recall of these governors.
Edward Hyde (Lord Cornbury) was governor of New York from 1702 to 1710. To put it simply, Cornbury had a lot of political enemies and these enemies insisted that he partook in a certain hobby:
"Lord Cornbury has and dos still make use of an unfortunate Custom of dressing himself in Women’s Cloaths and of exposing himself in that Garb upon the Ramparts to the view of the public; in that dress he draws a World of Spectators upon him and consequently as many Censures, especially for exposing himself in such a manner [on] all the great Holy days and even in an hour or two after going to the Communion."
There’s also a portrait that was (most likely) falsely purported to be him (though it could be Queen Anne, since she was his cousin and looked quite a bit like him):
(photo source: New York Historical Society).
These cross-dressing accusations caused Cornbury to be displaced in 1709.
fun fact: Harvard College was founded (in 1636) as a training school for Puritan ministers.
Yale was also formed to train ministers.
ah, yes! and Wikipedia says Yale was founded in 1701. and apparently Dartmouth College (1769) is also Puritan, but wasn’t founded to train ministers—it was founded to train Native Americans as missionaries.
fun fact: Harvard College was founded (in 1636) as a training school for Puritan ministers.
PLACES THAT NEED TO CALM DOWN: EUROPE.
I seldom browse era tags on tumblr because I get a very great desire to reblog every mislabeled post and scream at the OP. But that would be overly aggressive, and if I’m going to be aggressive, I’d rather be passive-aggressive. Anyway, hopefully if I tag this with every conceivable era people might see it and learn something. Cause knowledge is power! Or, being a dumbass is bad. Whichever you prefer.
1.) Medieval / Middle Ages - social/political/economic/cultural era; generally between the 5th and 15th centuries
2.) Renaissance - social/political/economic/cultural era; generally between the 14th and the 16th centuries
3.) Tudor - of or relating to the reigns of Henry VII, Henry VIII, Edward VI, and Mary I of England, 1485-1558
4.) Elizabethan - of or relating to the reign of Elizabeth I of England, 1558-1603
5.) Jacobean - of or relating to the reign of James I/VI of England and Scotland, 1603-25
6.) Stuart - of or relating to the reigns of the Stuart monarchs in England/United Kingdom, 1603-1714
7.) Baroque - social/cultural era; ca. 1600-1700
8.) Colonial - of or relating to the period of European rule over the American colonies, 1607-1776
9.) Caroline - of or relating to the reign of Charles of I of England and Scotland, 1625-42
10.) Louis Quatorze - of or relating to the reign of Louis XIV of France, 1643-1715
11.) Commonwealth (Interregnum) - of or relating to the rule of Oliver Cromwell over the Commonwealth of England, 1649-60
12.) Restoration - of or relating to the restoration of the British monarchy and the reign of Charles II, 1660-85
13.) Georgian - of or relating to the reigns of George I, George II, George III, George IV, and William IV of the United Kingdom, 1714-1837
14.) Rococo - social/cultural era; ca. 1715-60
15.) Louis Quinze - of or relating to the reign of Louis XV of France, 1715-74
16.) Louis Seize - of or relating to the reign of Louis XVI of France, 1770-92
17.) Federal - American cultural era; ca. 1780-1830
18.) Antebellum - American political/social/economic/cultural era; 1789-1861
19.) Directoire - of or relating to the Directoire in France, 1795-99
20.) Consulate - of or relating to the Consulate in France, 1800-04
21.) Empire - of or relating to the First French Empire, 1804-15
22.) Regency - of or relating to the British Regency, 1811-20
23.) Biedermeier - Central European social/cultural era; 1815-48
24.) Romantic - cultural era; ca. 1825-40
25.) Victorian - of or relating to the reign of Victoria of the United Kingdom, 1837-1901
26.) Second Empire - of or relating to the Second French Empire, 1852-70
27.) Civil War - of or relating to the American Civil War, 1861-65
28.) Gilded Age - American social/political/economic/cultural era; ca. 1868-1900
29.) Belle Epoque - European social/cultural era; late 19th century to 1914
30.) Edwardian - of or relating to the reign of Edward VII of the United Kingdom, 1901-10, although it is usually extended to 1914